Tag Archives: Detect

Cyber Attack to Belgian Defense Ministry

Belgium’s ministry of defense confirmed on Monday it had been hit by a cyber attack.

Log4j vulnerability discovered earlier in December and very popular in recent days. According to the Belgian Defense Ministry officials, hackers exploited Log4j vulnerability in one of their systems. The ministry uncovered the attack last Thursday.

A lot has been written about Log4j in recent days, we will not touch on the details of the vulnerability here but it is important to say that this vulnerability hit a long list of software.

We already know that some hacker groups including state sponsored groups started using this vulnerability. It is a really critical vulnerability and need to patched as soon as possible (today) if not done yet.

Apple Delays CSAM Detection Plans

Before, we posted about Apple’s CSAM detection plans and worries about this process of customers that it could be weaponized against users’ privacy. Apple now temporarily pausing the process because of these worries of the customers.

Apple announced this delay on its Child Safety website as; “Update as of September 3, 2021: Previously we announced plans for features intended to help protect children from predators who use communication tools to recruit and exploit them and to help limit the spread of Child Sexual Abuse Material. Based on feedback from customers, advocacy groups, researchers, and others, we have decided to take additional time over the coming months to collect input and make improvements before releasing these critically important child safety¬†features.

CSAM detection was one of new features that Apple announced in August. Normally, the changes were planned to go live with iOS 15 and macOS Monterey later this year in US. Despite the delay, it seems like the company has not given up on its plan. The date of going live of CSAM detection is not yet known.

Threat Hunting III – Pyramid of Pain

As we mentioned in the previous sessions, IoCs are crucial important for a proactive threat hunting process. Threat hunters should know most of the information of newly threats and implement them to their hunting processes. Pyramid of Pain classifies IoCs and helps us understand better the usefulness of them.

The pyramid of pain was created by David Bianco (Fireeye). He also has a Youtube video for presenting it.

Pyramid of Pain

This pyramid classifies the IoCs and with going up the pyramid, IoCs help us more to detect the suspicious. Also, as we go up, it is harder to obtain these IoCs. Now, lets check these IoC types shortly;

Hash Values: A hash value is a unique identifies of the data. In theory, the hash value of each data is expected to be unique to itself. So, it gets easier to identify a data, file with its hash value. As an example, you can see below the hash values (both md5 and sha256) of openvpn.exe.

Hash values of openvpn.exe

Hash values are at the bottom of the pyramid because it is very easy to change a file’s hash value and if you do not have the newly changed hash, that means you cannot detect this file anymore.

IP Addresses: IP blacklists still used by many different products, however it is also easy to change the IP address for an attacker. So, it is again does not help much to detect an adversary.

Domain Names: Everyday we can see that attackers can obtain new domain names very fast and can continue their attacks with ever changing domain names.

Network/Host Artifacts: These are the clues that adversaries left on the pc or network. These can be registery keys, processes, user agent strings, etc. Surely, to obtain such information, a forensic analysis need to be done in compromised pcs or networks.

Tools: Adversaries have their favorite tool to attacks, like pentesters have. It is important to know the tool that your enemy using and if you are good at detecting these tools, you can easily detect the attack or this situation forces the attackers use some other tools. This situation will slow down the attack and will save your time.

TTPs: Tactics, techniques and procedures are the patterns of activities or methods of a specific threat actor. As you all know, you can find all TTPs in the Mitre’s website and they are the most valuable data to identify an attack. If you know the TTPs of your enemy, it means you know what to check for a possible attack and mitigate.

Zone Identifier Commands

With Zone Identifier, we can say whether a file downloaded from internet or not.

A file with zone.identifier extension is an ADS (Alternate Data Stream) file that contains information about another file. It describes the security zone for the file. Zone identifier files are generated by Internet Explorer and Outlook when saving files to a Windows operating system. These files are normally hidden and cannot be opened directly.

Via powershell, we can find Zone Identifiers of a file;

PS C:\Progs\Forensics> Get-Content -Path C:\Progs\Forensics\autopsy-4.17.0-64bit.msi -Stream zone.identifier

PS C:\Progs\Forensics> Get-Item -Path C:\Progs\Forensics\autopsy-4.17.0-64bit.msi -Stream *

How To Remove Zone Identifier

For several reasons, you may choose to delete zone.identifiers. It is very easy to do it. Just right click the file and click “Unblock” tick in “Properties > General” menu.

If you want to remove multiple files, it is still easy. Just navigate to folder including files you want to remove with Powershell and type;

dir .* | Unblock-File

This will clear zone identifier from this folder.

Searching for IoC with Redline

Redline is a free tool for investigation malicious activity through memory and file analysis. It has a lot of features for investigation but in this post, we will only mention searching for IoCs in the endpoint with Redline.

In previous post, we created an IoC to detect WinSCP.exe. Now, we will search it with Redline as the example.

We will go on with “Create an IOC Search Collector” menu in the main page of Redline. For doing this, we browse the folder that including IoCs we want to search in the PC. We have only one IoC here but if you have more IoCs in the folder, you will see all of them in “Indicators” tab.

Then we create a folder for IoC Collector and after clicking “Next” button, we show this folder. Redline creates the IoC Collector in this folder. We will now use RunRedlineAudit.bat file with the command line. Once the bat file finishes running, it will create a folder called “Sessions” and save outputs to this folder in the same directory.

Just run the “RunRedlineAudit.bat” file and wait for finishing. Then, open the “Sessions” folder. Each IoC sweep placed in its own folder calle “AnalysisSessionX”. This was our first sweep, so we click on “AnalysisSession1” folder. Our IoC report will be in “AnalysisSession1.mans” file. So, we click on this file, and it will take some time it generates the report.

When IoC report generated, we can see it on Redline tool, “IOC Reports” tab. As you can see in the screenshot, our WinSCP Indicator IoC got hits. When we click on it, we can see why this IoC got hit. Here, our IoC catch the file with its MD5 hash value and file name. With clicking on “View Details” button, we can see more details about the hit.

Data Collection with Redline

As we discuss before, Redline is a great tool for investigating endpoints. In this post, we will explain how to collect memory data with Redline.

First, in the main page of Redline, we click on “Create a Standard Collector” button. In the opened window, we click on “Edit your script” label and be sure we choose all we need for memory analysis. Then we create a folder for analysis and show it with browsing in the Redline window.

This process will create the data collector in the folder we choose. Then we open a cmd and run “RunREdlineAudit.bat” script in this folder.

Once the script starts to run, you can see some analysis created in “Audit” folder. Sure, it will take some time to finish the analysis.

When it finishes, click on “AnalysisSessionX.mans” file in the “Audit” folder and this will open Redline again.

This file provides us all the information that we checked at the beginning (Edit your script).

Creating IoCs with Mandiant IOCe

In “Open Threat Exchange” post we mentioned that shared IoCs by other parties on Open Threat Exchange. Open IoCs are nice since they are manufacturer independent and can be used in a lot of different technologies for detecting threats.

Viewing Existing IoCs

In this post, we will mention on Mandiant IOC Editor. First of all, Mandiant IOCe could be used to view open IoCs which you downloaded from different sources. Here, we will show a simple example to view an existing IoC. So, as example, we download an IoC from Open Threat Exchange. This is the IoCs of malicious files found on Pulse Connect Secure devices. This is an xml file downloaded and has 108 IoCs containing 36 MD5, 36 SHA1, and 36 SHA256 hash values. You know, IoCs are not only hashes. They can contain a lot of different attributes about the attack, but in this example, we only have hash values. Later in this post, we will create IoC with different attributes also.

After we download the IoCs as xml file, from File > New > Indicator From File menu and choose the xml file. Here, we can see all the IoCs we downloaded and if we want we can change, delete or add IoCs in that file.

Output of the xml file

Create an IoC

It is also so easy to create IoC with Mandiant IOCe. We start from File > New > Indicator menu. Firstly, IOCe provides us to give a name and description for the IoC. As the example, we will create IoC for detecting WinSCP file. Let’s check hash values of WinSCP.exe file first. MD5 and SHA256 is enough for us now.

MD5 and SHA256 values of WinSCP.exe file

From Item > File Item menu, we choose File MD5 and paste the MD5 value of the file. Let’s do the same for File sha256 menu. Additionally, we add File Name in OR logic.

Then, we can add more attributes from hundreds of items in IOCe. We tried to show some of them in the screenshot below.

Creating IoC with Mandiant IOCe

Do not forget that attributes you choose should be unique to the file, so it can be detectable and less false positives occur. Description is important while creating an IoC, since open IoC is developed to be used by everyone, and if you create an IoC, it is better to write enough description to understand by others.

Open Threat Exchange

Open Threat Exchange is a threat intelligence platform from Alien Vault. It is not limited to use this platform to get intel information.

When you register and log in to OTX, you can easily see the summary of the threats in “Subscribed Pulses” section.

Let’s choose a threat, called “Wiper luring the Olympic Games”. When we click, we can see details of the threat like a brief description, reference, tags for searching easily later, and TTP Id for Att&ck.

In the same page, in Indicator of Compromise section, we see IoCs of this threat. For this example, we have an MD5, a SHA1 and a SHA256 hash values as IoC. These IoCs have more details and you can easily see the details with blue “go to details” button at the right of the IoC.

We have more details here like file type, size, different hash values, metadata information, and VirusTotal check.

In the main page of the pulse, you can download the IoCs in different forms. You can easily download and use these IoCs to detect the threats.

In the Browse tab of OTX, it is classified by pulses, groups, indicators, malware families, industries and adversaries. It is valuable to search for specific threat actors and their TTPs, and IoCs to detect them.

OTX also provides to create pulses and API connection. It has a simple user interface so do not want to touch all menus here.

Threat Hunting II – Recommendations

An effective threat hunting is critical because it is hard to think like attackers and to search for the unknown in an enterprise network. This post may help organizations for an effective and successful threat hunting.

Knowledge of Topology and Environment

The purpose of threat hunting is to find the anomalies and their sources in the network and endpoint. So, a threat hunter should know what is normal and so can understand what is not normal.

From the risk management point of view, critical assets – servers, applications, data – should be known to protect more effectively. With the knowledge of the environment, the threat hunter knows the critical assets and hunts according to this. If there is segmentation in network, it is also critical to know the network topology and networks – or vlans – of these critical assets.

It is also necessary to know which application is running on which operating system, so the threat hunter can know the weaknesses of the system and can search according to these weaknesses.

Effective Endpoint Management

For threat hunting, the most used tools are EDRs. Organizations should be sure that they installed endpoint security tools to all endpoints and detect when they removed or stopped. Asset management is something more than CMDB. It must be managed by security teams whose understanding the criticality of the lack of endpoint security tool in an endpoint.


Threat intelligence is one of the most important feeds of threat hunting. Threat hunters need to have most recent intelligence and IoCs so they cant perform hunting the latest threats. Many malicious are produced and detected every day. This situation causes a lot of noises about intel. To avoid this noise, hunters should get valuable intelligence about their organization’s sector and geolocation, and integrate these IoCs with SIEM, EDR, etc..


We all know that new tactics and techniques are created by attackers in general. The most important reason for this is while security professionals in organizations have to deal with so many different things, attackers can only focus on their target. Even if it so important to have valuable/experienced personnel, if they are dealing with different organizational missions while they are working, it will be difficult for them to think like an hacker and detect the unknown in the network. Threat hunters should focus to their mission to create their methodology and hunt. So, there should be dedicated personnels for threat hunting.

Coordination Across the Organization

Yes, threat hunters work in a strange mission, think like a hacker and search across the network but they must not work alone. A threat hunter should have a good relationships with key personnel in IT departments like network and system admins, help desk personnel and so on. With these relationships, they better understand the network, systems and more importantly the company’s and personnels’ way of doing business. For organization’s perspective, when a threat hunter finds a weaknesses during the hunting process, they inform critical IT personnel for remediation. This team working will result as a success in remediation phase of the incidents or weaknesses.


Pyramid of Pain

Intelligence is critical for hunting for the known threats but hunters should be familiar with the TTPs of the attackers against the zero day threats. Threat hunters also should be aware of the updated or newly TTPs. Only with this knowledge hunters can act like an attacker. TTPs are at the top of Pyramid of Pain (defined by David Bianco).


To disclose the anomaly or malicious activity, threat hunters should use advanced tools like EDR, NDR, SIEM, FIM, etc.. These tools will help hunter to find abnormal activities if configured properly. In different posts, we tried to explain why they should be used.

The Newest Ransomware: Epsilon Red

Sophos announced that analysts uncovered a new ransomware – called Epsilon Red – that developed in Go programming language. The code is placed in PowerShell script.

This malicious file is written in Go programming language and a 64-bit executable file. It is said that spreading in systems by exploiting security vulnerabilities in Microsoft Exchange servers. It is using vulnerabilities like CVE-2020-1472, CVE-2021-26855 and CVE-2021-27065 that recently discovered Microsoft Exchange servers vulnerabilities. Epsilon Red ransomware scans files and encrypts for ransom when it reach to the target systems. It seems like still there are more than three thousand exchange servers that including these vulnerabilities and this shows us Epsilon Red attacks would be more painful.

According to Sophos, Epsilon Red has been seen in hospitality industry in USA mostly, and it seems like one of their victims paid 4.29 BTC after being affected.

For not being affected, organizations should keep the applications up to date and detect these IoCs below to prevent this attack. Also you can read our short post about prevention agains ransomwares.