Criminal Gangs Preying on Vulnerable Victims in Multi-Billion Dollar Scam Operations
A recent report from the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights has exposed a disturbing surge in the involvement of criminal gangs in Southeast Asia, forcing hundreds of thousands of individuals into participating in illegal online scam operations. These operations encompass false romantic deceptions, bogus investment schemes, and illicit gambling activities.
According to the report, the U.N. human rights office has identified “credible sources” revealing that approximately 120,000 individuals in conflict-ridden Myanmar and around 100,000 in Cambodia are currently held in situations where they are coerced into carrying out online scams. These scams have become a pervasive issue in the region, with many victims trapped in virtual slavery and manipulated into participating in fraudulent activities targeting unsuspecting individuals over the internet.
The report also highlights several countries in the region, including Laos, the Philippines, and Thailand, as primary destinations or transit points for tens of thousands of victims. Criminal gangs increasingly target migrants, enticing them with false recruitment offers that promise legitimate employment opportunities.
The magnitude of these scam operations is staggering, with the U.N. rights office stating that estimating their exact impact in terms of the number of victims and revenue generated is challenging due to their clandestine nature and inadequate governmental responses. Nonetheless, it is believed that these criminal enterprises generate billions of U.S. dollars annually.
Tragically, many victims endure harrowing experiences, including torture, cruel punishments, sexual violence, arbitrary detention, and other crimes. Pia Oberoi, a senior advisor on migration and human rights for the Asia-Pacific region at the U.N. human rights office, emphasized that there are “two sets” of victims: those who are defrauded of significant sums of money, often their life savings, and those who are trafficked into working for the scammers, only to face “stigma and shame” for their involvement.
Speaking from Bangkok via video to reporters in Geneva, Oberoi explained that the genesis of many scams can be traced back to the COVID-19 pandemic. Lockdowns shuttered casinos in border zones and Cambodia, causing criminal actors to diversify their operations due to reduced income. The economic distress resulting from the pandemic left many educated and technologically competent individuals unemployed, making them susceptible to false promises of lucrative schemes.
One of the disturbing tactics employed in these scams is the “pig butchering scheme,” where multiple individuals in a compound target victims by posing as potential romantic interests. Oberoi elaborated that the scammers, often men, pretend to be women online. If a victim expresses a desire to meet the woman, one of the few women in the compound is brought in to act as a model, further perpetuating the deception.
Recent actions by law enforcement agencies in the region have highlighted the gravity of the situation. In June, Philippine police, supported by commandos, conducted a raid that rescued over 2,700 workers from various countries who had allegedly been deceived into working for fraudulent online gaming sites and cybercrime groups.
In May, leaders from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) convened a summit in Indonesia, pledging to strengthen border controls, enhance law enforcement efforts, and expand public education campaigns to combat criminal syndicates trafficking workers across borders, forcing them into online fraud activities.
As Southeast Asian nations grapple with the growing menace of forced online scams, the U.N. report serves as a stark reminder of the urgent need for regional cooperation and proactive measures to protect vulnerable individuals from falling victim to these ruthless criminal enterprises.