Operational Technology (OT) and Information Technology (IT) are two distinct domains that differ in their purpose, infrastructure, and security requirements. IT deals with data processing, storage, and communication technologies that are used to manage and support business operations. On the other hand, OT deals with the hardware and software systems that control and monitor physical processes such as manufacturing, energy production, transportation, and building automation.
The Importance of Security in OT
OT security is critical as it directly affects the safety, reliability, and availability of physical assets, processes, and people. A cyber attack on an OT system can result in production downtime, equipment damage, safety hazards, environmental impacts, and financial losses. Moreover, the consequences of an OT breach can be severe and long-lasting, such as the loss of human lives in the case of critical infrastructures.
The Less Known World of OT Security
Despite the growing awareness of cyber threats, OT security remains a less-known and less-addressed area in the cybersecurity community. Many IT security experts lack the necessary knowledge and skills to understand OT infrastructure and vulnerabilities, which are often different from those found in IT systems. Furthermore, OT security requires a multidisciplinary approach that involves not only cybersecurity but also engineering, operations, and management.
Common Attack Types and Techniques in OT
Attacks on OT systems can come from various sources, including nation-states, hacktivists, cybercriminals, and insiders. The following are some common attack types and techniques used in OT:
- Malware: Malicious software such as viruses, worms, and Trojans can infect OT systems through various vectors, including email, USB drives, and network connections.
- Phishing: Social engineering attacks that trick users into divulging sensitive information or clicking on malicious links can compromise OT credentials and systems.
- Denial of Service (DoS): DoS attacks that flood OT networks with traffic or commands can cause system unavailability or shutdown.
- Man-in-the-Middle (MitM): MitM attacks that intercept and modify OT communication between devices can manipulate process data or cause system failures.
- Insider Threats: Insiders with authorized access to OT systems can intentionally or unintentionally cause harm or steal data.
Controls for OT Security
To mitigate the risks of OT attacks, organizations need to implement a set of controls that address the specific vulnerabilities and requirements of their OT infrastructure. The following are some recommended controls for OT security:
- Segregation: Segregate OT networks from IT networks and from the Internet to minimize the attack surface and contain potential breaches.
- Access Control: Enforce strong access controls for OT accounts, passwords, and privileges to prevent unauthorized access and misuse.
- Patch Management: Regularly apply security patches and updates to OT software and firmware to fix known vulnerabilities and improve system resilience.
- Monitoring: Monitor OT systems for anomalous activities, such as changes in configuration, traffic patterns, or user behavior, to detect and respond to potential threats.
- Training: Provide OT security awareness and training for all employees, contractors, and vendors who interact with OT systems to raise their awareness and reduce the risk of human error.
In summary, OT security is a critical and challenging area that requires specialized knowledge, skills, and controls. Organizations need to prioritize OT security as part of their overall cybersecurity strategy to ensure the safety, reliability, and resilience of their physical assets and processes.